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Components, assembled components, modules etc used in high tech applications (e.g vacuum) have stringent requirements with respect to cleanliness. Mostly, cleanliness is also defined as the absence (or limitation) of stains, defects and surface discoloration. In general stated as 'surface deviations'. However when aqueous solutions (e.g. wet chemical cleaning) are applied, all kinds of surface deviations can occur on metal surfaces. These surface deviations can cause failure of the component, delamination/cracking of coatings and glues and for example also uncontrolled contamination of the vacuum.

The mechanisms for the occurrence of these surface deviations are numerous and understanding the (electro)chemistry behind it is very important. This course will overview the root causes of the surface deviations and additional information about stains and severity will be reviewed. An overview of possible solutions to decrease  (the risk for) stains/deviations as well as ideas about the possible precision cleaning technologies to remove surface deviations will be discussed.


This course explains the root causes, (electro)chemical mechanisms for the deviations on metal surfaces after wet chemical cleaning. It is an in depth technological cours for engineers who actively work on the improvement of metal surfaces used/produces in their manufacturing facilities.

The following topics will be discussed

  • Summary of surface deviations (kind of deviations)
  • Stains, surface deviations (root cause, severity, discussion points of the participants)
  • An overview of solutions possibly usable to prevent surface deviations


The course materials are in the English language. If all participants speak Dutch, the course will be teached in Dutch. If not, the course will be teached in the English language. 

For whom is this course interesting

This course is interesting for R&D-managers, equipment & process engineers, production engineers, managers, product developers. In general for those who have to meet high cleanliness requirements with respect to surface deviations which can be required by the subsequent contamination sensitive coating processes, like high tech (vacuum) coating processes, heat treatment etc.

As surface deviations can also occur in the more regular coating processes and applications, this course is also suitable for the industry which is in general facing surface deviations on metals leading to failure or quality loss.

This course is also interesting for component manufacturers (automotive, semiconductor, optical, medical, nuclear, defense, electronic), who use contamination sensitive processes/applications for metal surfaces (vacuum processes, coating processes, Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD), Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD), Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Brazing, Soldering, Heat Treatment, Plating processes or Glueing processes).

Applied water based liquids that can occur surface deviations on metal are: wet chemical cleaning liquids, etching liquids, machining liquids, galvanic processes, water based machining liquids, water based emulsions, tapwater, demineralized water, ultra pure water, humid air exposure.


For more information and conditions, please contact us bij phone +31(0)6 53 35 14 48.